Uremic Solutes Database
List of uremic solutes
NameClassNormal Concentration
(Average)
Uremic Concentration
(Average)
Relative increasePathological associations
1-Methyladenosinewater-soluble17.10 (+/-5.10) µg/L, [n=10]104.00 (+/-56.20) µg/L, [n=17]6.08Oncologic [3]
Hematologic [1]
Cardiovascular [1]
1-Methylguanosinewater-soluble13.70 (+/-16.90) µg/L, [n=10]41.60 (+/-23.80) µg/L, [n=17]3.04unknown [1]
1-Methylinosinewater-soluble13.50 (+/-3.90) µg/L, [n=10]620.40 (+/-203.40) µg/L, [n=14]45.96
2-Heptenalwater-soluble17.70 (+/-5.33) µg/L, [n=20]54.66 (+/-33.49) µg/L, [n=17]3.09
2-Hexenalwater-soluble22.05 (+/-6.56) µg/L, [n=20]61.74 (+/-20.48) µg/L, [n=17]2.80
2-Nonenalwater-soluble18.48 (+/-5.17) µg/L, [n=20]101.78 (+/-58.38) µg/L, [n=17]5.51
2-Octenalwater-soluble26.08 (+/-16.38) µg/L, [n=20]32.51 (+/-21.16) µg/L, [n=17]1.25
3-Carboxy-4-Methyl-5-Propyl-2-Furanpropanoic Acid (CMPF)protein-bound4.60 (+/-1.80) (3.61-7.70) mg/L, [n=29], p=0.00, D:A25.95 (+/-10.23) (3.70-94.00) mg/L, [n=63], p=0.00, D:C5.64
3-Deoxyglucosoneprotein-bound0.30 (+/-0.10) mg/L, [n=30]1.70 (+/-1.00) mg/L, [n=27]5.67
4-Decenalwater-soluble15.86 (+/-5.25) µg/L, [n=20]53.90 (+/-26.80) µg/L, [n=20]3.40
4-HO-Decenal water-soluble10.25 (+/-7.12) µg/L, [n=20]36.55 (+/-22.27) µg/L, [n=17]3.57
4-HO-Hexenalwater-soluble25.08 (+/-9.87) µg/L, [n=20]63.84 (+/-25.31) µg/L, [n=17]2.55
4-HO-Nonenalwater-soluble16.38 (+/-8.99) µg/L, [n=20]117.31 (+/-47.74) µg/L, [n=17]7.16
4-HO-Octenalwater-soluble10.65 (+/-3.56) µg/L, [n=20]27.83 (+/-13.79) µg/L, [n=17]2.61
4-Pyridone-3-carboxamide-1-β-D-ribonucleosidewater-soluble3.54 (+/-1.63) µg/L, [n=9]156.12 (+/-169.18) µg/L, [n=11]44.10
8-Hydroxy-2’-deoxyguanosinewater-soluble0.64 (+/-0.23) (0.20-1.26) µg/L, [n=85]0.82 (+/-0.25) µg/L, [n=47]1.28
Adiponectinmiddle8.70 (+/-4.80) mg/L, [n=22]17.71 (+/-6.60) (15.00-22.20) mg/L, [n=378], p=0.05, D:A2.04Cardiovascular [3]
Endocrinology [1]
Oncologic [1]
other [1]
Adrenomedullinmiddle13.20 (+/-4.60) ng/L, [n=17]88.77 (+/-17.71) (41.80-225.00) ng/L, [n=39], p=0.00, D:B6.73Cardiovascular [4]
Angiogeninprotein-bound308.00 (104.60-615.10) µg/L, [n=208]803.00 (+/-74.00) µg/L, [n=12]2.61
Arab(in)itolwater-soluble0.37 (+/-0.12) (0.16-0.63) mg/L, [n=33], D:B8.75 (+/-5.89) (0.80-15.00) mg/L, [n=28], D:C23.64
Argininic Acidwater-soluble16.59 (+/-5.60) (16.59-77.00) µg/L, [n=16], D:B65.82 (+/-33.36) (40.25-197.80) µg/L, [n=31], D:B3.97
Asymetric Dimethylarginine (ADMA)water-soluble0.15 (+/-0.08) (0.07-0.28) mg/L, [n=62], p=0.00, D:B0.38 (+/-0.27) (0.10-7.30) mg/L, [n=220], p=0.00, D:D2.60Cardiovascular [2]
Atrial Natriuretic Peptide (ANP)middle27.88 (+/-10.09) (27.72-28.00) ng/L, [n=40], p=0.95, D:A197.18 (+/-123.82) (187.88-202.00) ng/L, [n=41], p=0.80, D:A7.07Cardiovascular [1]
Basic fibroblast growth factor (BFGF)middle0.21 (+/-0.09) ng/L, [n=23]1.35 (0.20-21.50) ng/L, [n=32]6.43
Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP)middle185.66 (+/-11.37) ng/L, [n=20]164.44 (+/-35.95) ng/L, [n=10]0.89
Cholecystokininmiddle4.99 (+/-2.23) ng/L, [n=43]26.06 (+/-22.91) (6.73-131.50) ng/L, [n=77], p=0.00, D:C5.22Nutrition [1]
Clara cell protein (CC16)middle0.01 (+/-0.01) mg/L, [n=117]3.03 (+/-1.37) (2.80-12.50) mg/L, [n=26], p=0.50, D:B218.04
Complement Factor Dmiddle1.90 (+/-0.50) mg/L, [n=5]21.35 (+/-6.03) (11.40-27.70) mg/L, [n=37], p=0.00, D:A11.23
Creatinewater-soluble9.70 (+/-3.30) mg/L, [n=24]134.00 (+/-30.30) (?-235.80) mg/L, [n=29]13.81
Creatininewater-soluble9.68 (+/-0.24) (8.86-12.00) mg/L, [n=851], p=0.00, D:A136.00 (+/-46.00) (?-240.00) mg/L, [n=19746]14.04Neurologic and CNS [1]
Cystatin Cmiddle0.70 (+/-0.12) mg/L, [n=56]11.13 (+/-4.48) (2.80-41.10) mg/L, [n=220], p=0.00, D:C15.90
Cytidinewater-soluble468.00 µg/L, [n=1]683.30 (+/-287.80) (?-1263.60) µg/L, [n=7]1.46
Decanalwater-soluble17.16 (+/-4.95) µg/L, [n=20]23.40 (+/-8.81) µg/L, [n=17]1.36
Degranulation Inhibiting Protein Imiddle321.70 (+/-59.70) µg/L, [n=23]713.70 (+/-390.00) (?-1631.40) µg/L, [n=125]2.22
Delta-sleep Inducing Peptidemiddle0.90 (+/-0.29) µg/L, [n=12]1.50 (+/-0.90) µg/L, [n=7]1.67
Dihydroxyphenylalanine (PB-DOPA)protein-bound6.60 (+/-0.73) mg/L, [n=21]11.37 (+/-3.17) mg/L, [n=19]1.72Biochemical [1]
Dimethylaminewater-soluble2.18 (+/-0.33) mg/L, [n=9]10.32 (+/-1.55) mg/L, [n=7]4.73Nephrologic [1]
Dimethylglycinewater-soluble381.10 µg/L, [n=33]576.80 (?-1040.30) µg/L, [n=18]1.51
Endothelinmiddle20.80 (+/-3.80) ng/L, [n=23]31.80 (+/-23.01) (3.00-63.00) ng/L, [n=25], p=0.00, D:C1.53Cardiovascular [1]
Endocrinology [1]
Erythritolwater-soluble0.45 (+/-0.14) (0.22-0.75) mg/L, [n=33], D:B6.51 (+/-9.17) (2.00-37.00) mg/L, [n=28], D:D14.47
Ethylaminewater-soluble25.80 (+/-5.80) µg/L, [n=10]69.00 (+/-10.20) µg/L, [n=31]2.67
Fructoselysineprotein-bound81.00 (+/-8.32) (68.68-102.56) mg/L, [n=19]58.10 (+/-10.80) mg/L, [n=10]0.72
Glyoxalprotein-bound19.04 (+/-12.04) µg/L, [n=18]221.00 (+/-28.00) µg/L, [n=20]11.61
Guanidinewater-soluble11.80 µg/L, [n=16]126.40 (+/-52.60) (90.86-800.00) µg/L, [n=33], D:D10.71Immunologic [1]
Neurologic and CNS [1]
Cardiovascular [1]
Guanidinosuccinic acidwater-soluble0.03 (+/-0.01) mg/L, [n=16]2.99 (+/-1.72) (0.99-47.00) mg/L, [n=63], p=0.00, D:D99.74Neurologic and CNS [2]
Guanylinmiddle0.05 (+/-0.02) (0.05-0.05) µg/L, [n=62], p=0.69, D:A10.73 (+/-4.99) (6.16-13.30) µg/L, [n=25], p=0.00, D:A225.66
Heptanalwater-soluble51.07 (+/-11.17) µg/L, [n=20]61.10 (+/-44.11) µg/L, [n=17]1.20
Hexanalwater-soluble21.70 (+/-10.80) µg/L, [n=20]51.70 (+/-33.00) µg/L, [n=17]2.38
Hippuric acid (total)protein-bound3.00 (+/-2.00) mg/L, [n=7]109.43 (+/-64.66) (67.00-247.00) mg/L, [n=37], p=0.00, D:B36.48
Homocysteineprotein-bound1.42 (+/-0.50) (1.26-1.88) mg/L, [n=99], p=0.11, D:A6.11 (+/-4.70) (4.40-26.40) mg/L, [n=101], p=0.12, D:B4.31Cardiovascular [4]
Hyaluronic acid (Hyaluronan)middle124.00 µg/L, [n=86]215.26 (+/-233.97) (17.00-1843.00) µg/L, [n=222], D:D1.74other [1]
Nephrologic [1]
Hypoxanthinewater-soluble1.48 (+/-0.50) (1.47-1.50) mg/L, [n=290], p=0.61, D:A1.92 (+/-1.38) (0.92-2.67) mg/L, [n=103], p=0.10, D:A1.29
Indicanprotein-bound1.00 (+/-0.40) mg/L, [n=4]27.30 (+/-13.30) mg/L, [n=31]27.30
Indole-3-acetic acid (free)protein-bound0.50 (+/-0.30) mg/L, [n=21]1.26 (+/-0.83) (0.44-1.50) mg/L, [n=49], p=0.00, D:B2.52
Indole-3-acetic acid (total)protein-bound17.50 (+/-17.50) µg/L, [n=7]1004.74 (+/-702.49) (875.00-9076.90) µg/L, [n=95], p=0.00, D:D57.41
Indoxyl sulfate (free)protein-bound0.53 (+/-0.29) mg/L, [n=15]3.83 (+/-2.46) (2.09-4.49) mg/L, [n=213], p=0.00, D:A7.19Nephrologic [2]
Indoxyl sulfate (total)protein-bound0.54 (+/-4.00) (0.40-0.60) mg/L, [n=73], p=1.00, D:A37.07 (+/-26.50) (0.23-53.58) mg/L, [n=344], p=0.01, D:C68.34Cardiovascular [2]
Nephrologic [2]
Indoxyl-β-D-glucoronideprotein-bound0.95 (+/-0.39) mg/L, [n=15]2.93 (+/-2.94) mg/L, [n=10]3.09
Inosinewater-soluble0.03 (+/-0.01) mg/L, [n=22]1.90 (+/-0.40) mg/L, [n=12]64.45
Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1)protein-bound181.00 (+/-49.20) µg/L, [n=17]220.00 (+/-93.00) µg/L, [n=20]1.22
Interleukin-10protein-bound7.10 (+/-1.50) (4.80-9.80) ng/L, [n=18]10.60 (+/-6.00) ng/L, [n=71]1.49
Interleukin-18middle142.13 (+/-48.10) (2.00-193.44) ng/L, [n=22], p=0.00, D:C201.82 (+/-169.32) (13.00-508.47) ng/L, [n=58], p=0.00, D:C1.42
Interleukin-1βmiddle160.00 ng/L, [n=15]235.59 (+/-92.39) (2.60-428.00) ng/L, [n=64], p=0.00, D:C1.47
Interleukin-6middle13.30 (+/-3.10) ng/L, [n=28]71.48 (+/-104.13) (3.60-102.80) ng/L, [n=330], p=0.00, D:C5.37
Kinurenineprotein-bound391.00 µg/L, [n=7]686.40 (+/-178.90) µg/L, [n=21]1.76
Kynurenic Acidprotein-bound5.48 (+/-1.32) µg/L, [n=7]151.01 (+/-76.36) µg/L, [n=9]27.55
Leptinprotein-bound7.90 (+/-4.81) (0.60-54.40) µg/L, [n=133], p=0.08, D:D20.30 (+/-20.69) (0.10-724.10) µg/L, [n=242], p=0.00, D:D2.57Nephrologic [2]
Nutrition [2]
Immunologic [1]
Malondialdehyde (MDA)water-soluble257.70 (+/-81.70) µg/L, [n=30]274.39 (+/-133.67) (7.81-428.80) µg/L, [n=26], D:C1.06
Mannitolwater-soluble0.41 (+/-0.45) (0.09-2.16) mg/L, [n=33], D:C14.40 (+/-16.37) (0.80-26.00) mg/L, [n=28], D:C35.12
Melatoninprotein-bound26.50 (+/-7.10) ng/L, [n=35]175.80 (+/-130.20) ng/L, [n=13]6.63
Methionine-Enkephalinmiddle18.30 ng/L, [n=10]32.20 (?-75.50) ng/L, [n=22]1.76
Methylglyoxalprotein-bound47.00 (+/-12.00) µg/L, [n=15]110.00 (+/-18.00) µg/L, [n=20]2.34
Methylguanidinewater-soluble7.30 µg/L, [n=24]266.30 (+/-227.54) (72.27-1820.00) µg/L, [n=25], D:D36.48Neurologic and CNS [1]
Cardiovascular [1]
Monomethylaminewater-soluble149.94 (+/-26.09) (30.90-320.00) µg/L, [n=17], p=0.00, D:C195.76 (+/-50.85) (84.20-580.00) µg/L, [n=40], p=0.00, D:B1.31Neurologic and CNS [1]
Nephrologic [1]
Motilinemiddle25.40 (+/-2.80) ng/L, [n=2]425.56 (+/-241.12) (201.00-672.10) ng/L, [n=36], p=0.00, D:B16.75Oncologic [1]
Myoinositolwater-soluble10.00 mg/L, [n=8]62.70 (+/-42.92) (43.92-94.00) mg/L, [n=32], p=0.01, D:A6.27Neurologic and CNS [1]
N(6)-Carboxymethyllysine (CML)protein-bound1.10 (+/-0.30) mg/L, [n=24]3.99 (+/-1.59) (1.84-18.50) mg/L, [n=128], p=0.00, D:C3.62
N-methyl-2-pyridone-5-carboxamidewater-soluble0.13 (+/-0.03) mg/L, [n=19]2.36 (+/-0.88) mg/L, [n=21]18.70
N-methyl-4-pyridone-3-carboxamidewater-soluble39.52 (+/-13.68) µg/L, [n=19]319.20 (+/-395.20) µg/L, [n=21]8.08
N2,N2-Dimethylguanosinewater-soluble9.00 (+/-4.70) µg/L, [n=10]236.40 (+/-89.70) µg/L, [n=14]26.27
N4-Acetylcytidinewater-soluble57.00 (+/-17.10) µg/L, [n=10]159.60 (+/-30.80) µg/L, [n=14]2.80
N6-Methyladenosinewater-soluble18.50 (+/-8.40) µg/L, [n=10]70.30 (+/-53.30) µg/L, [n=17]3.80
N6-Threonylcarbamoyladenosinewater-soluble35.50 (+/-27.20) µg/L, [n=10]378.00 (+/-151.20) µg/L, [n=17]10.65
Neopterinwater-soluble1.38 (+/-0.47) µg/L, [n=10]83.25 (+/-10.78) µg/L, [n=12]60.33
Neuropeptide Ymiddle10.18 (+/-1.73) ng/L, [n=15]90.24 (+/-48.13) (64.08-862.94) ng/L, [n=306], p=0.00, D:D8.86Cardiovascular [1]
Nicotinamidewater-soluble3.17 (+/-1.22) µg/L, [n=19]35.38 (+/-29.28) µg/L, [n=21]11.16
Nonanalwater-soluble37.35 (+/-23.29) µg/L, [n=20]68.87 (+/-26.84) µg/L, [n=17]1.84
Orotic Acidwater-soluble0.50 (+/-1.40) mg/L, [n=30]6.70 (+/-16.00) mg/L, [n=22]13.40
Orotidinewater-soluble1.20 (+/-1.60) mg/L, [n=30]20.20 (+/-13.50) mg/L, [n=22]16.83
Osteocalcinprotein-bound9.50 (1.00-18.00) µg/L, [n=100]356.40 (+/-607.40) µg/L, [n=10]37.52
Oxalatewater-soluble0.30 (+/-0.10) mg/L, [n=8]2.41 (+/-0.97) (2.08-4.90) mg/L, [n=69], p=0.00, D:A8.02
p-Cresylsulfate (free)protein-bound0.08 (+/-0.09) mg/L, [n=1]2.60 (+/-5.10) mg/L, [n=139]32.50Nephrologic [2]
Cardiovascular [1]
p-Cresylsulfate (total)protein-bound1.87 (+/-2.31) (1.50-3.80) mg/L, [n=31], p=0.18, D:A23.00 (+/-16.90) (18.90-37.70) mg/L, [n=216], p=0.00, D:A12.27Cardiovascular [1]
Nephrologic [1]
Parathyroid hormonemiddle0.51 (+/-0.03) µg/L, [n=30]0.31 (+/-0.26) (0.22-1.20) µg/L, [n=230], p=-0.00, D:B0.60Cardiovascular [1]
Pentosidineprotein-bound51.60 (+/-18.80) µg/L, [n=19]796.53 (+/-407.16) (579.50-2964.00) µg/L, [n=35], p=0.20, D:B15.44
Phenolprotein-bound0.41 (+/-0.19) (0.19-0.60) mg/L, [n=22], p=0.00, D:B2.64 (+/-2.27) (1.00-12.40) mg/L, [n=36], p=0.07, D:C6.39
Phenylacetic acidprotein-bound1.40 mg/L, [n=1]474.64 (+/-44.88) mg/L, [n=41]339.03Cardiovascular [1]
Immunologic [1]
Phenylacetylglutaminewater-soluble0.40 (+/-0.20) mg/L, [n=16]52.25 (+/-29.85) (52.00-120.60) mg/L, [n=31], p=0.89, D:A130.63
Pseudouridinewater-soluble0.55 (+/-4.10) (0.50-0.61) mg/L, [n=60], p=0.00, D:A11.55 (+/-8.08) (8.60-86.60) mg/L, [n=53], p=0.30, D:D20.80Endocrinology [1]
Putrescineprotein-bound10.13 (+/-5.14) (4.36-21.10) µg/L, [n=29], p=0.00, D:B59.03 (+/-23.45) (8.01-77.40) µg/L, [n=34], p=0.00, D:C5.83
Quinolinic Acidprotein-bound0.10 (+/-0.05) mg/L, [n=10]1.50 (+/-0.90) mg/L, [n=54]15.00
Resistinmiddle17.30 (+/-1.00) µg/L, [n=19]27.50 (+/-1.40) µg/L, [n=38]1.59Cardiovascular [1]
Retinol Binding Protein (RBP)protein-bound20.70 (+/-4.53) mg/L, [n=16]194.06 (+/-72.80) (192.00-369.20) mg/L, [n=130], p=0.76, D:A9.38Immunologic [1]
S-Adenosylhomocysteinewater-soluble7.26 (+/-2.14) (3.84-10.68) µg/L, [n=2], D:A230.40 (+/-38.40) µg/L, [n=1]31.74Cardiovascular [1]
Sorbitolwater-soluble0.16 (+/-0.11) (0.06-0.60) mg/L, [n=33], D:C1.81 (+/-1.55) (0.10-3.10) mg/L, [n=22], D:C11.31
Substance Pmiddle179.67 (+/-87.87) (45.40-246.80) ng/L, [n=72], p=0.00, D:B2.70 (+/-0.13) ng/L, [n=11]0.02
Symetric Dimethylarginine (SDMA)water-soluble85.25 (+/-38.57) (74.74-129.28) µg/L, [n=100], p=0.00, D:A623.24 (+/-324.56) (305.02-1232.20) µg/L, [n=107], p=0.00, D:B7.31Cardiovascular [1]
Taurocyaminewater-soluble1.32 (+/-1.39) mg/L, [n=10]5.36 (+/-2.24) mg/L, [n=15]4.06
Threitolwater-soluble200.00 (+/-60.00) (100.00-370.00) µg/L, [n=33], D:B1501.92 (+/-602.28) (300.00-5697.40) µg/L, [n=28], D:C7.51
Trimethylaminewater-soluble24.66 (+/-7.31) µg/L, [n=10]82.01 (+/-28.49) µg/L, [n=10]3.33Nephrologic [1]
Trimethylamine-N-oxidewater-soluble2.83 (+/-1.53) mg/L, [n=10]7.49 (+/-2.39) mg/L, [n=10]2.64
Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha (TNF)middle13.30 (+/-3.00) ng/L, [n=28]206.35 (+/-176.03) (4.90-5600.00) ng/L, [n=337], p=0.00, D:D15.51
Ureawater-soluble0.30 (+/-0.12) (0.30-0.40) g/L, [n=21], D:A1.57 (+/-0.64) (1.30-4.60) g/L, [n=64], p=0.00, D:B5.23Cardiovascular [2]
Uric Acidwater-soluble40.50 (+/-13.90) mg/L, [n=12]50.60 (+/-15.60) (6.23-146.70) mg/L, [n=75], p=0.00, D:C1.25
Uridinewater-soluble1.50 (+/-1.30) mg/L, [n=30]9.80 (+/-11.40) mg/L, [n=22]6.53
Uroguanylinmiddle8.34 (+/-0.50) ng/L, [n=13]354.57 (+/-46.59) (353.62-361.79) ng/L, [n=86], p=0.53, D:A42.51
Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)protein-bound359.00 (+/-168.00) ng/L, [n=21]529.00 (+/-455.00) ng/L, [n=38]1.47
Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP)middle34.58 (+/-2.33) ng/L, [n=16]75.48 (+/-27.33) ng/L, [n=10]2.18
Vasopressin (ADH)middle5.32 (+/-4.00) ng/L, [n=37]5.20 (+/-2.88) (1.70-10.80) ng/L, [n=26], p=0.00, D:B0.98
Xanthinewater-soluble0.50 (+/-1.40) mg/L, [n=180]1.27 (+/-0.71) (0.45-1.50) mg/L, [n=83], p=0.01, D:B2.54Cardiovascular [1]
Xanthosinewater-soluble23.90 (+/-12.80) µg/L, [n=10]96.60 (+/-62.90) µg/L, [n=11]4.04
α-keto-δ-Guanidinovaleric Acidwater-soluble8.23 (+/-2.63) µg/L, [n=16]39.79 (31.14-60.55) µg/L, [n=20]4.83
α-N-Acetylargininewater-soluble18.10 (+/-24.80) µg/L, [n=16]328.30 (+/-142.60) (?-4580.00) µg/L, [n=13]18.14
α1-Acid glycoproteinprotein-bound0.63 (+/-0.19) g/L, [n=28]1.17 (+/-0.39) g/L, [n=29]1.86
β-2-Microglobulinmiddle1.50 (+/-0.50) (1.10-2.40) mg/L, [n=47], p=0.00, D:A32.62 (+/-8.00) (13.00-100.00) mg/L, [n=769], p=0.00, D:B21.80Osteoarticular [3]
other [1]
β-Endorphinmiddle173.30 ng/L, [n=10]157.16 (+/-50.12) (22.90-492.00) ng/L, [n=37], p=0.00, D:C0.91
β-Guanidinopropionic Acidwater-soluble3.30 µg/L, [n=24]28.80 (+/-18.30) µg/L, [n=29]8.73
β-Lipotropinwater-soluble2.92 (+/-0.31) (2.81-55.30) ng/L, [n=2], D:D50.58 (+/-15.30) (25.68-125.30) ng/L, [n=8], p=0.00, D:B17.29
γ-guanidinobutyric Acidwater-soluble3.60 µg/L, [n=24]33.30 (+/-16.00) (?-1750.00) µg/L, [n=30]9.25
λ-Ig Light Chainmiddle31.00 (+/-11.20) mg/L, [n=15]87.00 (+/-60.90) (?-328.00) mg/L, [n=104]2.81